A fair amount as I’ve been doing research for 9 years now. During this time the main things that I have learnt are how to identify interesting questions in my field and the general tools that I can use to solve them. When it comes to individual experiments it still takes me a long time to plan the methods that I will use if I haven’t done that experiment before. For example, what chemicals am I going to need and what equipment I need and how to use it. Normally there are lots of other people in the same department (or at another university) who can help with this sort of thing.
I think that I’m a baby when it comes to science experience! I’m in my 3rd year of my PhD, I’ve got another year or so to go, and before this obviously I did my degree which had a bit of practical experience, and I also did a summer project between terms in a lab during my degree, but yeah, compared to others, I’ve not got THAT much experience really, though still, three years in a lab every day is quite a bit!